Moore’s Law

Today we see around ourselves that lives of humans are becoming faster and more easier whether it be a the field of transport, communication, manufacturing, medical, etc.

Have you ever wondered how this is really taking place ?  well…. one can say the introduction of ‘Computers’ in our lives can be the answer, as it is seen that  these computers are becoming more faster and powerful day by day, which is helping us to grow up further. Thus how powerful a computer can be was roughly predicted by Dr. Gordan Moore which is known today as Moore’s law.

Understanding of the law :

A quick check among technicians in different computer companies shows that the term is not very popular but the rule is still accepted.

To break down the law even further, it specifically stated that the number of transistors on an affordable CPU would double every two years (which is essentially the same thing that was stated before) but ‘more transistors’ is more accurate.

For those who doesn’t know what transistor is here’s a quick definition

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

As this transistor works as a binary system , which means it is either ON or OFF, more technically ‘One’ or ‘Zero’. Thus, enough transistor working together we can create limitless combination of “ons” and “offs” to make a code which can store any kind of information that you can imagine. What how your computer computes this is the reason behind it.

It’s all because of those little transistors which can be integrated into an integrated circuit also known as ‘microchips’ or ‘microprocessors’ which carry out the operation of millions of transistor at once.

Now thus, we have seen what a transistor is  it looks like more the transistor in a microchip faster will the device be. Hence researchers and scientists from decades are trying to make these transistor as small as to possible so they can fit more and more of them one the chip.

At Present :

In the late 1940s, the dimensions of a typical transistor in the early 2010s were more commonly expressed in tens of nanometres (a nanometre being one-billionth of a metre)—a reduction factor of over 100,000. Transistor features measuring less than a micron (a micrometre, or one-millionth of a metre) were attained during the 1980s, when dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) chips began offering megabyte storage capacities. At the dawn of the 21st century, these features approached 0.1 micron across, which allowed the manufacture of gigabyte memory chips and microprocessors that operate at gigahertz frequencies. Moore’s law continued into the second decade of the 21st century with the introduction of three-dimensional transistors that were tens of nanometres in size.

Limitations :

So far, merely scaling to smaller sizes has kept Moore’s Law in play, but now that we are approaching the atomic scale, many see the handwriting on the wall: When you get down to one atom per memory cell, Moore’s Law has to end — or has it?

Thus Moore’s Law is no longer just about making transistors smaller, but about continuing to increase computational capacity in other ways that face new problems, some of which engineers have never faced before.

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